Evidentiality the Linguistic Coding of Epistemology Advances in Discourse Processes – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. EVIDENTIALLY: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology edited by Wallace Chafe University of California, Santa Barbara Johanna Nichols University of California. With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time.

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Benjamin Lee Whorf, who also studied under Sapir, circulated an outline of language structure in which included grammatical categories. Similarly – k ‘a is also used to mark that the information in the sentence is from the speaker’s first-hand knowledge, though in this case the knowledge is gained not by having seen the event, but by having otherwise sensed usually heard the event or state, as in 7 M-ashvar-‘a. In certain situations, a verb of perception would have to be used to make explicit the type of evidence.

Maricopa is a Yuman language of the River branch, most closely related to Mojave and Yuma. The influence of Jakobson seems likely here. There is suspicion, but not yet direct confirmation through sighting, that what Raven has heard was the arrival of someone. It indicates hearsay evidence, and occurs constantly in the narration of tales and myths, although its excessive repetition can be avoided by the use of absolutive forms.

Other Authors Chafe, Wallace L.

Hoijer, Harry, et al. Lee b notes such terms as ‘to make one’s own scalp glisten’ for ‘to shave the head’ p. It does not attempt to offer a single, unified approach to evidentiality, because we believe that the time is not yet ripe for such a treatment.

In order to set up a list of libraries that you have access to, you must first login or sign up. The map is useful for the comparison of evidentiality in different languages, and also in showing paths of historical change. Kwakiutl grammar, with a glossary of the suffixes.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology – Google Books

With the evidential suffixes, the Wintu speaker points to his evidence, inviting the addressee to verify it. Here the evidence comes before the predicted failure of an attempt: Lingiistic exemplified in 6 and 9the sensory evidential epistrmology with k are used when the subject is first person.


Evidentials in Patwin 69 Another class of clitics in Patwin which modify the sense of a statement in the declarative mode are what could be termed assertives.

This book contains revised versions of evidnetiality of the papers that were presented at the symposium. As will be seen, it now covers much more than the marking of evidence per se. It must be emphasized, however, that the speaker is not the center in Wintu: The Heterogeneity of Evidential in Makah 5 modal force. Linguistic structures of native America. If any portion of a punctual action evidentialoty, all of it must hold. It became both a suffix to the preceding noun and a prefix to the following verb, both meaning ‘in, inside’.

Unifying Movement and Adjunction.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology

University of Nevada, Reno I take evidentials to constitute a linguistic category which applies to predications that the speaker assumes have a reasonable likelihood of being true, but which he cannot vouch for out of direct observation or experience.

The tense tends to be intermediate past, since the matters discussed in conversations tend not to be immediate and present. In all the data available to me these were the only examples evidentiwlity first and second person subjects of an action known through hearsay.

The other closely related Nootkan languages, Nitinat and Nootka, are spoken on the west coast of Vancouver Island. And there is a strongly developed class of verbs of perception. Since the morphological analyses of the evidentials and evidential-like suffixes and clitics in Patwin are fairly strightforward, the pieces can be compared with cognate elements in Wintu to seek patterns of historical development of evidential functions.

PAST ‘It seems to me that he’s [gotten] sick. One fact may be good evidence for another in one situation, bad e vidence under different circumstances. National Library of Australia. These verbs are used to indicate how the event on which the speaker’s inference is based is manifested.


The University of Sydney. There are some things people are sure of, either because they have reliable evidence for them, or—probably more often—because they have unquestioning faith that they are true. Wakashan words from other sources are retranscribed into these symbols. However, when added to the free noun stem bukwac ‘deer’ it underlies a predication indicating tracks as the source of evidence: Lloyd Anderson provides a broad ranging discussion of evidentiality in general, and an overall perspective on much of the material presented in the other papers.

This fact is presumably the result of the moribund status of the language and, perhaps more importantly, of the gradual loss of the traditional tales and the appropriate communal settings for their telling. Aspect is important to two pairs of suffixes, the Performative pair and the Factual-Visual pair.

With all of the suffixes above the Quotative line in Table 1, it is the speaker, the first person, who experiences or perceives the described event or state, or the circumstantial evidence thereof. Haas, another student of Sapir’s, collaborated with Swadesh in work on Nitinat, which is closely related to Nootka and Makah.

The Origins and Deictic Nature of Wintu Evidentials 55 drawn, elaborating on epistemplogy nature of subjects and objects, and specifying the degree of involvement of each, as well as of the speaker if he is not identical with lijguistic subject or the object. Examples of suffixes and free forms are given for Athabaskan Mattole and Navaho, Iroquoian Seneca, and Siouan Dakota, but only for Navaho are nonquotative categories exemplified. The use of – k ‘a does not indicate that the speaker is making an inference based on sensory evidence.

The event or state that the verb expresses is completed if the action is punctual, as in 2 and 11 ‘iipaa-ny-sh puy-k. Data-Source Marking in the Jaqi Languages. In certain passages a: