The sludge was characterized according to ABNT NBR /, following the procedures for obtaining leached extract (ABNT NBR /), to classify . Brazilian Association of Technical Norms, in ABNT NBR Procedure for obtention leaching extract of solid wastes (Rio de Janeiro, ), p. 16 8. Brazilian Association of Technical Regulation. Procedures for obtainment of leaching extract from solid residues. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ).
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Because of the large volume of sludge produced, residue destination planning should consist of a program to guide final disposal taking into account technical, environmental and economic points of view.
The samples are press with diameters of 73 mm and thickness of 15 mm identified, weighed, and measured. There are no accurate data on total domestic production of sludge, but it is estimated that it exceeds three hundred thousand tons per year for each type of sludge. The burning tends to reduce the amount of organic material present in the clays and its dimensions too.
To ensure personal safety of the operators, the following personal protective equipment PPE were worn: The CRTs were split into three, according to the previous delimitation Fig. The sanitation in this country is still precarious. The glass has three components: Therefore, innovative approaches to the production of heavy clay ceramics that are less dependent on virgin sources are highly encouraged from the perspective of protecting natural resources and sustainable development.
The chosen glass component for this procedure was the funnel glass because it presented high lead concentration.
Journal of Cleaner Production. Seven CRTs monitors were submitted to the Brazilian standard leaching procedure to evaluate their hazard potential. How to cite this article.
Through these curves, we could see that texture of WTP sludge and soil are similar, indicating great physical compatibility when mixed to each other whether compared to mixtures with STP sludge.
The water and sewage treatment plants are largely responsible for environmental damages due to the amount and toxicity of the waste produced in sludge form. It is regarded as a pre-treatment, in which hazardous constituents of wastes are processed and kept in less soluble forms, being confined in capsules, particles or blocks. Figure 7 plots that the RM of both mixtures are susceptible to large influence of confining stress and little deviation one except for lower deviation stress values.
The WA was classified as Class IIa not inert with the values of the chromium, cadmium, and lead above the maximum limit. Cooling was done naturally during the night.
Study for vitreous waste recovery in the formulation of heavy clay ceramics
The presence of Al and Si comes from using aluminum sulphate coagulants during water treatment. The graph of Figure 2 shows the results of total linear thermal retraction drying and firing of the formulations and standard mass STD used in the study.
In Figure 2 are shown respectively the X-ray diffraction spectra of water and sewage sludge residues. In case of improper disposal, these materials may contaminate soil and groundwater, bringing damages to the environment and population.
Again, these results are related to the considerable content of fluxes in the waste. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
In a WTP, the disposal of sludge consists in its application in heavy clay ceramic industry or as backfilling ditches. The lead removal evaluation showed that parameters from samples D, E and F can remove the lead from CRT monitors to an environmentally safe level.
The NBR displays a list of known hazardous materials and their characteristics and can be related to the Code of Federal Regulations title 40, subtitle of the United States 40 C.
Sampling occurred in Februarycollecting about 90 kg sludge and packaging in 30 kg plastic barrels.
According to GONDIMstabilization promotes higher soil resistance and bulk density aside from lower permeability. Changing its characteristics in the finished product. Graphs showed a few well-defined peaks owning to the large amount of organic matter within the residues. The presence of silica SiO2 in main content is an hbr that the residue can improve the quality of the piece, mainly in the mechanical strength, since it nnbr an oxide flux related to the verification of the material.
Reducing the amount of pores favoring the reduction of water absorption and the increases of the mechanical resistance. On the other hand, samples D, E and F are below the standard.
Neck, funnel and panel parts Fig 3. Conclusions The results obtained display the importance of feasibility studies about incorporating residuals in ceramic mass so that the compositions obtained have satisfactory mechanical behavior and are in accordance with the specifications actually required for the production of ceramic coatings.
The methodology involved analyzing the technological properties of various compositions. Materials and methods 2. The results were obtained from the arithmetic averages of three replicates with their respective standard deviations.
The choice of the parameters used in the procedure was based on the work of Veit et al. Over time, the planet’s natural resources, formerly considered abundant, have been used indiscriminately generating significant amounts of solid waste. The lead content varies according to the manufacturer, but the average concentrations have been published in several works Table 1.
Rotator for non volatile substances TE-743
June 10, ; Revised: The model must faithfully describe the resilient behavior of the material, assessing its deformation, accurately. Hence, in the coming years, the amount of sludge produced every day tends to increase due to the implementation of new service stations.
In conclusion, it was observed that the residuals analyzed herein could reduce industrial processing costs from the origin to the final destination ceramic factory. Therefore, to use as pavement base, all values zbnt lower than those recommended for heavy traffic roads are. This work also contributes to the reduction of the environmental impact and favors the sustainable development of the heavy clay ceramics contributing to the improvement of the quality of the pieces.
Being a ratio of the initial measure to the final.